Tag Archives: Youghal

Death of a local shop

Death of a local shop

The death of a local shop can bring an incredible opportunity to local historians. Recently in Youghal a shop closed. This was 91, North Main Street.  It was likely to be gutted by the new owners when sold. As part of Youghal Celebrates History ( a group formed almost twenty years ago) we asked for permission to visit and photograph the interior of the shop. The family selling the shop were the Owen family . One of them, Brian Owen,  married an aspiring young politician called Nora O’Mahony. Nora was very gracious in granting permission to us.   The visit was led by David Kelly, co-author of the Historic Town Atlas of Youghal and whose knowledge of the town’s history is second to none. 

Exterior of shop

The front of the shop is very bland and gives little indication of what lies behind. Like many shops in Youghal there are two doorways. One leads to the shop, often the second leads to an enclosed alley or lane, as in this case.

The shop section has a step down into it – indicating a lower ground level in the town eight hundred years ago. With global warming and rising tides all floor levels in Youghal have had to be raised. This is the final shop floor at the original level.

The door on the right hides an access to a covered laneway. It is an extensive premises, leading to the rear of the Moby Dick pub, but when built originally led to the water’s edge. The little Barber shop next door was a slip way on the old maps. One side of the shop still retains a semi-circular tower staircase, indicating , said David Kelly, the building was once a castle or fortified tower house. Many rooms we could not enter as fallen roof beams and dodgy flooring impeded access. Inside the rooms the new owners could be heard flapping their wings and making their presence heard.

Winding staircase of turret.

For generations the Owen family had served the people of Youghal as chemists. They mixed their own tablets, dispensed whatever was prescribed. There were also hygiene products and some beauty products as you might expect to find in a chemist today. When the Owen family ceased to trade from it, the building became idle and was used for a number of purposes, most recently a hairdressing salon. 

As the building is extensive, successive owners simply pushed old items to one side.  Quite a lot remained. There were old ledger books, some medicinal products, invoices and receipts.

Invoice

In themselves the accounts paint a picture of life in a small town during World War II and also tel us the way business was transacted before mobile phones, the internet and social media. Typically a “commercial traveller” would call to the business and take orders, accept payments and returns. The orders would later be “phoned in” to headquarters and deliveries arranged. Business was very personal. You got to know your “traveller”. And they were always welcome at Christmas when little gifts appeared for the chemist.

The “paperwork” left behind gives a fascinating insight into the life of a small town as seen by the chemist. The items ordered, the quantities sold, the goods returned all tell a story.  The cost of items is also detailed. The invoices in beautiful copperplate writing are a delight to read. The receipts were on a single page – on one side there was an envelope cover, on the other side a receipt. 

Strange to see that tobacco was sold in a chemist! They also sold a product , guaranteed to cure people with that annoying little cough associated with smoking. Guaranteed! Of particular interest were the years of World War II – when  – “because of the current difficulties our agent may not be able to visit you in person”. 

There  were some books. One book was in three parts – the first being a series of prescriptions, the second part a transcription of the first section and the third part was a translation of the transcription of the prescription (if you are still with me!).

Some very damp books!

Apart from the orders and sales there are also account books – detailing the monthly medical orders for the various account holders. You can estimate popular ailments  and remedies of the time. There seemed to be enough paraffin oil to move the bowels not just of  Youghal but of the entire nation while there was little demand for toothache oil. Perhaps during the war there was less access to sweets. It is a story waiting to be told, a picture to be painted. 

Medical supplies

We were glad to be able to gather some papers, they may prove of some use to someone sometime. Better than being dumped in the skip! We did contact a local chemist about the medical products on the shelf and had them moved to a safer location. 

In the family quarters we found old comics which changed as the children grew up…. Dandy, Bean, Topper . Bruce Grobelaar and Anneka Rice were big favourites. The comics were given to the family . The doors were 18th century as were the locks.

The Store

In the old shops there are countless stories waiting to be told.

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The Peculiar Grave of Elizabeth Scroope

Daughter of a  regicide.

There are many strange tales from the graves of St. Mary’s Collegiate Chapel in Youghal but none are so strange as the gravestone of Elizabeth Scrope, (pronounced “Scroop”) , in St. Mary’s Collegiate Church , Youghal, somewhat poorly repaired and with the text missing from the bottom part of the stone.

The gravestone is mounted on the north wall of the nave on the inside. 

The wording is peculiar. Usually a married woman is called by her married name – the wife or widow (relict) of the husband. In this case, it is clear she is a widow but her maiden name is given first, and her parentage and, only then, a brief reference made to her husband, Jonathan Blagrave , D.D.  

Looking at the stone one might wonder about the way it is broken, why it was broken, about the wording that is visible and about the missing wording. It is a curious and thought provoking grave stone.

At the rear of the church is an old sign detailing the names of those buried in and around the church.  There are four names listed for the grave – Adrian Scrope, his wife, his daughter and her husband, Jonathan Blagrave. Reading this list you might think Adrian Scrope and his widow are buried in a grave in front of the church along with Jonathan Blagrave and the daughter of Scrope. The year (1655) is not explained. It is grave number one, which makes it quite significant.  Today the gravestone is not in front of the church, the gravestone is on the inside north wall. The gravestone has been moved indoors for some reason.

 A brief search into the name of Blagrave tells us Jonathan was a noted preacher who was invited by Queen Mary to give a sermon “On the Nature and Mischief of Envy” which was published. On the front cover of the booklet he is described as chaplain “to their Majesties”.  Jonathan Blagrave was a very illustrious man indeed but it is Adrian Scrope, an unrepentant regicide who was hanged, drawn and quartered in 1660 for his part in the trial of King Charles I, who features first on the tombstone. Equally strange is the fact that Daniel Blagrave, probably an uncle of Jonathan, was also a judge who signed the death warrant for King Charles I.

After the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 the regicides and all connected with them were very reticent about this episode in their past.  There was a list of some eighty names implicated in the regicide. Some, like Cromwell and Ireton were already dead by 1660. Some, like Adrian Scrope, were arrested and executed. Some were imprisoned. Some, like Daniel Blagrave, fled abroad and, even there, were not safe as squads of assassins were sent to track them down. One such squad was led by James Cotter of Carrigtwohill who was sent to kill John Lisle in Switzerland and later Edmund Ludlow.[1] References to the killing of the King were to be wiped out of history . That is the explanation given for the missing piece of the inscription.  However it is but a plausible explanation at best.

  Certainly initially, in 1660 the regicides were widely unpopular. The restoration of the monarchy brought with it the reopening of theatres, the relaxation of puritan attitudes….. but barely a generation later, after the battle of the Boyne, the Jacobite supporters of the Stuarts were again defeated and Parliament was back in control. As my father used to say, “Good Friday always follows Palm Sunday”. Attitudes to the Regicides changed.  From the very start of his reign Charles II was faced with an impossible task – there were loyal supporters of Charles I who looked to him to restore their confiscated property, there were Cromwellian supporters who demanded the retention of property given to them under the terms of the Cromwellian settlement. It would be impossible to satisfy both.

 The monarchy was dogged by bad luck. The bubonic plague arrived in England and spread to London in 1665. This was followed a year later by the Great Fire of London. There was a disastrous war with Holland and a humiliating peace. There was ever increasing contact with Catholic France which was not liked by Protestant England. There was more and more Catholic influence at court. 

The King spent lavishly, lived extravagantly, had 13 mistresses and as many illegitimate children but, worryingly, for “Protestant England” there was no legitimate heir. Even more worrying was the action of James, next in line to the throne who not only converted to Catholicism, but his second marriage (this time to a Catholic) produced a male heir. There was a real prospect of a Catholic on the throne of England. A series of intrigues and negotiations ended with William, son in law of James being invited to become King of England at the expense of his Catholic father in law. The battle of the Boyne was decisive in that war. William won.

In Youghal there seems to have been an even stronger anti Catholic atmosphere. Elizabeth Blagrave died almost eighty years after her father and by then, there had already been the War of the Two Kings – between Catholic King James and Protestant King William of Orange.  Something happened during that brief war which hardened anti Catholic sentiment in Youghal. There is another untold story,  suggested by Hayman, in the Annals of Youghal. He says elderly Cromwellian soldiers were locked up for a year in Tynte’s castle and other castles around town until they were released by the army of King William of Orange. Hayman says that a father told his son “Child, never forget ’89, never forgive King James!” ( Hayman,p.55).  This is probably the same occasion when an angry Catholic mob threatened to burn Tynte’s castle but were dissuaded by Thomas Ronayne (a Catholic) who was appointed mayor when the Protestant Corporation of Youghal was thrown out by supporters of King James.  The Protestant population were so grateful to Ronayne that bells in the town were tolled whenever a Ronayne died.  Among those present when the Protestant corporation was restored was John Cooke, who, you will recall,  claimed to be related to the regicide John Cooke.

The original records for the Youghal burials are in the RCB archives in Dublin. Strange to say, the name Scrope is not listed.  Elizabeth Blagrave is the name. The record states simply “Mrs. Elizabeth Blagrave, relict of Revd. Jonathan Blagrave, late Prebendary Worcester, aged 83 years”.  Which is what you would expect but it does not fully explain the wording on the grave which generated the wording on the list at the rear of the church.

The Church registry of deaths contains a second entry relating to this family – in 1763, Miss Elizabeth Blagrave, daughter of Elizabeth Blagrave nee Scrope,  died in Youghal.  One might think that both would have been buried in the same grave and that the name of the daughter would feature on the gravestone. Perhaps that is the missing writing on the grave. It more than likely was on the grave that does not explain why some would be erased. There has to have been some more writing before the 1763 section.

There are significant names at the bottom of the page – Thomas Taylor, church warden and curate Atkins Hayman. The latter is related to Valentine Greatrakes who served with Colonel Robert Phaire (one of the three colonels given the Warrant of Execution by Oliver Cromwell and asked to carry it out).  Phaire commanded the garrison in Youghal in Cromwell’s time.

Phaire and Greatrakes both lived near Youghal and remained in contact long after Cromwell had died.  Greatrakes was the “miraculous healer” who was able to cure Phaire of gout. He was also involved in the witchcraft trial of Florence Newton in 1661.  Atkins Hayman is the grand father of Samuel Hayman, the historian of Youghal whose “Annals of Youghal” remain the main source of information about the town and this grave.

Two distinct branches of the Cooke family settled in Youghal, one had no male descendants, but on the maternal side the Taylor family are related to them. The Cookes publicly claimed a family connection with John Cooke, former Chief Justice of Munster in the Cromwellian era and the brilliant legal brain who devised a solution when King Charles refused to recognize the court. Cooke lived in Waterford.  John Cooke, probably a relation, lived in Youghal. John Cooke, the regicide,  was hanged , drawn and quartered like Adrian Scrope. William Cooke Taylor, a prolific writer, born in Youghal,  claimed to be descended from this John Cooke, although it cannot be directly as the executed man had but one child, a daughter called Freelove.

There is an explanatory note next to the gravestone saying it was deliberately defaced because of a reference to the execution of King Charles I. That may be  true as all references to the regicides were to be removed in 1660, their property and titles declared forfeit. Some of them, including some  the Scropes, changed their name to avoid recriminations. A number of families called Throop, in America, claim they are descended from Adrian Scrope (also spelt Scroop) and, in their family tree, mention Elizabeth, the lady buried in Youghal  (Findagrave.com).

There is the confusion between what is written on the grave and what is recorded in the archives. Probably Elizabeth Blagrave decided she wanted the connection with her father mentioned on her grave. She may even have wanted to include the phrase Thomas Scot wanted written on his grave  that he “adjudged the King to death”.  She was with her father and the rest of the family on the night before his brutal, bloody execution. It was possibly the most traumatic experience of her life. She may well have nurtured a strong hatred for all those who killed her father, she may well have been proud of her father. 

Her daughter, Elizabeth, would have taken charge of the burial and respected her mother’s wishes. Authorities in the church – people like Cooke would have allowed a significant statement to be made and the grave was placed in a really prominent position, under the main window as seen in the little drawing here.

The gravestone is currently inside the church but according to the index of graves it was initially outside. Samuel Hayman in his “Annals of Youghal” fills in some of the detail about the location of the grave:

“Beneath the east window,  on the outside, is the grave of a daughter of Colonel Adrian Scrope, the Regicide. The monument is an upright slab fastened to the wall, having one extremity supported by the ground, and the other shaped into a triangular headpiece. Mrs. Blagrave was buried , 4th August, 1738 (Youghal Register). She was but five years old when her father, along with Harrison, Carew, Clement, Jones and Scot, (all having sat in judgment on the late King, and signed his death-warrant) was executed, 17th Oct. 1660.” (Hayman). 

Thomas Scot was married to Sir Thomas Mauleverer’s daughter, Grace.  Maulever, too, was a regicide but died before the Restoration. Scot’s great granddaughter married Pierce Drew, Rector of St.  Mary’s at the time Hayman was writing his Annals. 

 Francis Rowe, brother of Owen Roe (another of the regicides) is buried in Youghal, and the family remained for several generations. Sir Hardress Waller (a regicide who was pardoned) married the daughter of Sir John Dowdall of Kinsalebeg. Waller is mentioned several times in the records of Richard Boyle, they stayed in each other’s house. Boyle lent Waller money. 

 Waller, Phaire, Cromwell and others have huge connections with the Boyle family. When Cromwell left Youghal to attack Clonmel and Fethard, it was a three pronged attack. Broghill (son of Richard Boyle) attacked the Irish on the Macroom side and, having defeated them, hanged Bishop McEgan in an attempt to force the defenders at Carraigadrohid to surrender. The second prong of the attack was led by Phaire and Ireton (Cromwell’s son in law).

 Why did Elizabeth Blagrave come to Youghal?  

For some reason, a number of the regicides or family members found their way to Youghal. Under the terms of the Cromwellian settlement many were given land in Ireland. Adrian Scrope himself had no love for Ireland, his troops mutinied when they were told they would be going to Ireland! In the case of Elizabeth Blagrave the answer is more likely to be found with the Scrope family in Bristol.  Sir Adrian Scrope’s brother, Thomas Scrope , was a merchant of Bristol. Merchants in Bristol were constantly trading with Youghal. Young men from one town served apprenticeships in the other and would be very familiar with Youghal.  It is likely that Elizabeth Blagrave and her daughter went to Bristol after the death of her husband, Jonathan, and later moved to Youghal after the death of Thomas Scrope in 1704,  assured of a warm welcome.

Could Adrian Scrope be buried in Youghal?   

The simple answer is no. The list of burials would suggest he was buried in Youghal, along with his wife. It is not accurate. It makes no reference to the daughter of Elizabeth Blagrave .  The list was made some time after the grave was defaced. Whoever made the list did not know about Elizabeth Blagrave’s daughter. Hayman makes no reference to part of the inscription being erased. The list is based on a misreading of what is written on the grave. Adrian Scroop is not buried in Youghal, his daughter and grand-daughter are. If not in Youghal, where might Adrian Scroop be buried?

First of all, the ghastly method of execution involved dismembering the body and displaying the head and quarters in various locations.   The first hand accounts of the executions of the regicides tell us that, after a period of time on display, family members were allowed to gather the remains and give them a Christian burial. 

The Genealogy service Ancestry says Adrian Scroop is buried in the Lincoln Monument in London. The building is not open to the public so this cannot be, at present, verified. There was an older church on the site before it became a memorial to Abraham Lincoln.

 In the case of Adrian Scroop we are told he suffered the same death as the others, so he could have been given a Christian burial after the public humiliation of the display of his body parts. According to the Ancestry website there are only two bodies in the Lincoln Memorial – Rowland Hill and Adrian Scroop.  Hill,  a slightly unconventional but extremely popular preacher who was six times refused  ordination but who persisted nevertheless,  died in 1833. He set up a church with a series of Sunday Schools in the building to-day referred to as the Lincoln Memorial. There were over 3,000 students at the Sunday Schools.

There is a connection between Scrope and Rowland Hill. Ann Scrope, the grand daughter of Adrian Scrope married Thomas Fane, who was under the command of Sir Rowland Hill (father of the Rowland Hill we are discussing) during the Napoleonic Wars and was mentioned by the Duke of Wellington in dispatches (March 1814).  Without visiting the Lincoln Memorial it is difficult to go further with this possibility, but no mention of Adrian Scrope is in the original church records in Youghal so he is NOT buried in Youghal. The Lincoln Memorial is probably the burial place for Adrian Scrope, not Youghal.

When was the tombstone defaced ?

This is a difficult question.  First of all, the break in the stone must have been undertaken after the writing was defaced. Possibly it was an accident during the reconstruction of the nave in the church. The writing looks genuine for the time. Other contemporaneous graves have similar writing – so perhaps Elizabeth Blagrave was very proud of her father and determined to preserve his memory. When her daughter, also called Elizabeth, died some years later, it is likely that her name was added to the grave. Her name is missing. The possible script can by therefore be suggested – the words “who adjudged the King to death” were probably on the tombstone, followed by the name of Elizabeth Blagrave’s daughter.

If that is plausible the script would be something like this :

Here lyeth the body of Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Colonel Adrian Scrope of Warmesly in the county of Oxford, widow of Jonathan Blagrave, D.D. of Longworth in the county of Berwick, born in the year 1655, aged 83 years. 

Colonel Scrope it was who adjudged the King to death. 

Here lyeth also Elizabeth Blagrave, spinster, who died 1763.” 

Or similar words. 

Some time after 1763, I suggest, the tombstone was defaced, leaving only the current script. There was, at that time, a strong undercurrent of Jacobite support in Ireland. Piaras Mac Gearailt, the poet, from Ballymacoda ( author of Rosc Catha na Mumha, in English – the Battlecry of Munster) was writing of his bonny prince coming over the ocean to Ireland, was writing of “going up the hill” to the local Protestant church (in order words, changing religion to save his land). If he did go up the hill to St. Mary’s, the first thing he would have seen would be the grave of Elizabeth Scrope, with the reference to the killing of the king. Perhaps that is when that section of the inscription was erased.

By the time Hayman was writing his Annals, some one hundred years later, the defacing of the script had been done but not in the recent past.  Hayman does not refer to Elizabeth Blagrave’s daughter also buried in Youghal. He does not seem aware of it. He would have mentioned the vandalism had it been a recent event as it would have attracted some controversy. Not everyone supported the regicides! Had the breaking of the stone been connected to the defacing much more damage would have been done. It would have been smashed! Therefore, it is more likely that the breakage occurred much later, possibly during the repairs and restoration work undertaken by the Reverend Drew.

The grave of Elizabeth, daughter of Adrian Scrope hides a huge story!

Kieran Groeger    


[1] See A.K Groeger  “The Trial and Execution of James Cotter”,  Createspace, 2014

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The CBS Registers 1850 onwards

We have extracted some of the details for you. It is alphabetic based on Surname. Theoriginal images contain, sometimes, more information.

Contact us using the form on the website for more information

AA SURNAME NAME Year of birth DOB image no. ADDRESS OCCUPATION Comment
19 Ahearn Maurice 1875 910 1 Piltown, Co. Waterford National Teacher monitor for teacher
30 Barrett Michael 1876 510 1 Rincrew National Teacher farming
4 Broderick William 1877 2705 1 Main St. Butcher to father’s business
3 Collins Edward 1876 707.76 1 Tallow St. Shopkeeper Shopkeeper in Tralee
5 Condon Justin 1877 809.77 1 Main St. Auctioneer  
12 Coughlan Charles 1876 807.76 1 Bridge House Caretaker  
20 Dea John 1876 2303.76 1 Kellerstown Evicted Tenant  
29 Farrell Edward 1877 610.77 1 Strand  St. Sailor  
17 Fitzgerald James 1874 1512.74 1 Williamstown Porter  
19 Fitzgerald Maurice 1876 702.76 1 Main St. Butcher  
26 Fitzgibbon George 1878 1712.78 1   Shopkeeper Carpenter
21 Green Patrick 1877 708.77 1 Main St. Shopkeeper  
14 Hanley John 1876 2905.76 1 Williamstown Army Pensioner  
25 Hanley Thomas 1878 2502.78 1 Williamstown Army Pensioner  
18 Kennedy John 1879 201.79 1 Newtown, Co. Waterford Farmer  
18 Lynch Michael 1876 1111.76 1 Main St. Butcher  
29 Magner Phillip 1878 1805.78 1 Main St. Dressmaker  
24 Mccarthy William 1877 2108.77 1 Seafield Farmer  
10 Mccarthy Maurice 1877 112.77 1 William St. Sea Captain  
2 McDonald Corneilius 1875 309.75 1 Nth Main St/ Relieving Officer clerk, very intelligent
28 McDonald William 1887 511.87 1 Windgap Relieving Officer  
11 Mooney Denis 1876 807.76 1 Mall Constable RIC  
16 O’Brien John 1877 1401.77 1 Sth Main St. Shopkeeper  
15 Payne  Robert 1878 3009.78 1 Sth Main St. Shopkeeper  
29 Powell Edward 1877 610 1 Strand  St. Sailor Baker
17 Power Patrick 1873 2012.73 1 Pilpark, Co. Waterford Farmer  
13 Power William 1875 1109.75 1 Market Square Gardener  
23 Sullivan Michael 1878 306.78 1 Brown St. Father dead  
  Walsh Alfred 1889 OO1089 1 South Abbey Coastguard  
1 Whelan John 1874 1005 1 Main St. Shopkeeper to father’s business
  Whelan Thomas 1877 2407 1 Main St. net Maker  
  William Danny(?) 1875 405 1 Market Square Shopkeeper  
  Barry George 1879 2004 2 Friar St. Parents dead  
  Barry John 1880 2101 2 Friar St. Baker  
  Broderick Simon 1875 2310.75 2 Sth Main St. Butcher  
  Broderick William 1877 2705 2 Main St. Butcher  
  Broderick John 1879 1902 2 Main St. Butcher  
  Condon Francis 1882 1405.82 2 Nth Main  St. Auctioneer  
  Cunningham William 1875 2811.75 2 Main St. Publican  
  Dea Matthew 1877 109.77 2 Kellerstown Evicted Tenant  
  Duggan William 1879 604.79 2 Friar St. Naval Officer  
  Fitzgibbon ***** 1880 1402.8 2 Market Quay Grocer  
  Foley Michael 1877 712.77 2 Knockmonlea Farmer  
  Foley John 1878 3107.78 2 Muckridge Steward  
  Gumian Jeremiah 1880 1004.8 2 Sth Main St. Shopkeeper  
  Lawton William 1878 405.78 2 Kilcoran Labourer  
  Lynch William 1874 306.74 2 Claycastle Evicted Tenant  
  Lynch Michael 1875 507.75 2 Claycastle evicted Tenant  
  McDermot John 1880 802.8 2 Friar St. Constable  
  McGrath John 1875 201.75 2 Clashmore Farmer  
  McGrath Morgan 1878 512.78 2 Sth Main St. Baker  
  McGrath William 1880 507.8 2 Nth Main  St. Baker  
  McMahon Patrick 1880 1703.8 2 Main St. Shopkeeper  
  Morris John P. 1881 1703.81 2 Strand  St. Lighthouse Keeper  
  Murray Richard 1879 1908.79 2 Beau. St Carpenter  
  Murray John 1879 204.79 2 Sth Main St. Merchant  
  Power Mathias 1877 201.77 2 Clashmore Farmer  
  Power Roger 1877 2112.77 2 Clashmore Farmer  
  Rahily Michael 1880 1009.8 2 Williamstown Cardriver  
  Ryan John 1878 2104.78 2 Nth Main  St. Publican  
  Sheehan Thomas 1876 412.76 2 Raheen Lane Labourer  
  Tobin Patrick 1875 111.75 2 Catherine St. Carpenter  
  Torpey James 1877 206.77 2 Main St. Baker  
  Walsh Richard 1882 309 2 South Abbey Coastguard  
  Boland Thomas 1872 2706 3 Sth Main St. Shoemaker  
  Boland William 1877 310 3 Sth Main St. Shoemaker  
  Bransfield William 1879 1203 3 Nth Main  St. Baker  
  Browne John 1877 2906.77 3 Williamstown Farmer  
  Bumphret Thomas 1878 511.78 3 Hayman’s Hill Labourer  
  Cashman James 1881 207.81 3 Nth Main  St. Shopkeeper  
  Cotter John 1873 508.73 3 Aglish Farmer  
  Donovan Thomas 1875 1010.75 3 Catherine St. Sea Captain  
  Evans William 1878 1006.78 3 Sth Main St. dead  
  Evans John 1881 601.81 3 Sth Main St. Shopkeeper  
  Foley John 1879 703.79 3 Water Lane Labourer  
  Glavin Thomas 1879 1004.79 3 Williamstown Farmer  
  Harris  James 1880 *03.8 3 Summerfield Farmer  
  Hennessy Thomas 1874 1307.74 3 Main St. Weighmaker  
  Hill Edward 1878 407.78 3 Williamstown Railway Porter  
  Hyde John 1879 812.79 3 Cross Lane Labourer  
  Kelly William 1876 305.76 3 The Mall Sailor  
  Kenneally Jeremiah 1877 405.77 3 Nth Main  St. Baker  
  Kenneally William 1878 1005.78 3 Nth Main  St. Baker  
  Mansfield Michael 1881 108.81 3 Catherine St. Clerk  
  Manuel Edward 1878 1203.78 3 The Mall Sailor  
  McGrath James 1880 608.8 3 Nth Main  St. Baker  
  Mulcahy Michael 1877 2512.77 3 Power’s Lane Fisherman  
  Muphy William 1879 601.79 3 Summerfield Labourer  
  Murray Michael 1878 1908.78 3 Mary St. Coach-builder  
  Power Jeremiah 1878 506.78 3 Newtown, Co. Waterford Farmer  
  Pyke George 1874 2612.74 3 Cork Lane Father dead  
  Pyke Joseph 1881 2303.81 3 Cork Lane Father dead  
  Savage Peter 1874 309.74 3 Ardagh Evicted Tenant  
  Tarrant  Patrick 1875 1003.75 3 Chapel Lane Baker ?
  Browne Michael 1879 1302.79 4 Williamstown Farmer  
  Cooke James 1882 3808.82 4 Market Square Sea Captain  
  Delaney Michael 1879 711.79 4 Windmill Lane Sailor  
  Evans John 1879 305.79 4 Tallow St. Shopkeeper  
  Fenton Francis 1877 1203.77 4 South Abbey Sailor  
  Fitzgerald Michael 1878 408.78 4 Kilmagner Labourer  
  Green  Maurice 1881 1703.81 4 Nth Main  St. Shopkeeper  
  Gurry Maurice 1880 412.8 4 Water Lane Labourer  
  Hamiliton John 1880 2602.8 4 Strand  St. Shopkeeper  
  Hannigan Christopher 1879 2905.79 4 Mall Lane Dead  
  Harman John 1880 407.8 4 Main St. Shopkeeper  
  Harris  Thomas 1881 711.81 4 Cross Lane Parrider  
  Jones William 1880 907.8 4 Friar St. Sea Captain  
  Kenneally Patrick 1878 1111.78 4 Cork Lane Tailor  
  Loughlin Michael 1879 1111.79 4 Strand  St. Sailor  
  Loughlin James 1879 911.79 4 Porter’s  Lane Sea Captain  
  Lynch John 1881 2601.81 4 Main St. Baker  
  McGrath William 1880 807.8 4 Windmill Lane Sailor  
  Moloney Wiliam 1881 2201.81 4 Cork Lane Baker  
  Murphy Michael 1878 305.78 4 Summerfield Labourer  
  Murray Edmund 1882 2101.82 4 Windmill Lane Labourer  
  Power William 1879 3006.79 4 The Mall Sailor  
  Rea(?) Albert 1877 806.77 4 Mary St. Butler  
  Regan Edward 1881 2705.81 4 Chapel Lane Labourer  
  Regan Thomas 1881 401.81 4 Kilnathara Labourer  
  Shea Thomas 1879 1511.79 4 Mill Road Labourer  
  Sullivan William 1879 401.79 4 Mill Road Baker  
  Troy  Troy 1879 2005 4 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Troy  Edward 1881 2704.81 4 Browne St. Labourer  
  Williams Albert 1881 2703 4 Windmill Lane Net Maker  
  Boland James 1880 307 5 Water Lane Shoemaker  
  Bowen Timothy 1881 2401 5 The Mall Father dead  
  Bransfield Maurice 1881 2206 5 Main St. Hairdresser  
  Browne Daniel 1881 1501 5 Kellerstown Farmer  
  Cashman William 1882 3003 5 Sth Main St. Shopkeeper  
  Coleman John (Tony( 1882 104.82 5 Market Quay Excise Officer  
  Condon Callaghan 1884 805 5 Main St. Auctioneer  
  Cotter Edward 1881 412 5 Cronin’s Lane Clerk  
  Crowley Michael 1882 504.82 5 Cork Lane Baker  
  Doyle Richard 1881 509.81 5 Campaign Place Farmer  
  Duggan Charles 1881 1601 5 Friar St. Naval Officer  
  Fitzgerald John 1882 2703 5 Nth Main  St. Butcher  
  Fitzgibbon Stanislaus 1881 1112.81 5 Market Quay Shopkeeper  
  Foley Thomas 1880 308.8 5 Green’s Quay Labourer  
  Healy William 1881 2612 5 Rhincrew Farmer  
  Kennedy Burton 1882 405 5 Clashmore Gentleman Farmer  
  Lee David 1883   5 Nth Main  St. Shopkeeper  
  Liston Thomas 1881 2512.81 5 Nth Main  St. Draper  
  Lynch Michael 1880 1006 5 Hayman’s Hill Butcher  
  McCarthy Patrick 1881 1703 5 Copper Alley B. Maker to brickyard
  McCarthy Patrick 1881 305.81 5 Cross Lane Labourer  
  McCarthy Daniel 1882 505 5 Seafield Farmer  
  McGrath Michael 1882 1507.82 5 Nth Main  St. Shopkeeper  
  Moore James 1882 102.82 5 Strand  St. Sea Captain  
  Morris James 1881 1012 5 Strand  St. Lighthouse Keeper  
  O’Brien Patrick 1878 506 5 Knocknakally Farmer  
  O’Neill William 1881 2903 5 The Mall Shopkeeper  
  Ronayne Thomas 1881 609 5 South Abbey Clerk of Unions  
  Ronayne Robert 1881 506 5 Ardsallagh Farmer  
  Ryan Joseph 1882 202 5 Frogmore Dead to America
  Sullivan Charles 1880 1406 5 Greencoyne Baker  
  Brien Denis 1878 2404 6 Quay Lane Sailor Butcher
  Browne William 1879 1010 6 Williamstown Labourer  
  Casey James 1876 405 6 Cork Lane Drover Most irregular
  Connery John 1880 2703 6 Piltown, Co. Waterford Farmer Farming
  Crowley Michael 1881 503 6 Cork Lane dead  
  Doherty Joseph 1882 2906 6 Grattan St. Head Constable Remoced to Parkland
  Donoghue Christopher 1883 407 6 Grattan St. Policeman removed to Waterford
  Duane Michael 1881 604 6 Chapel Lane Labourer To Upton Insdustrial School
  Garry Daniel 1879 1010 6 Strand  St. Gentleman   Clerk, very intelligent
  Geary Richard 1880 2307 6 Grattan St. Pensioner To Upton Insdustrial School
  Harris  James 1881 2402 6 Kilmagner Evicted Tenant  
  Healy Michael 1882 2705 6 The Mall Captain  
  Hurley James 1880   6 Knocknakally Farmer date not given
  Hussey Michael 1878 307 6 New Lane Farmer Labouring
  Jones Thomas 1882 510 6 Friar St. Sea Captain Gone to sea
  Keefe James 1881 1711 6 Windmill Lane Butcher To Industrial School
  Kidney Patrick 1878 105 6 Nile St.  Dealer cabinet making
  Lee Michael 1877 305 6 South Cross Lane Carman Fishing
  Lynch William 1884 311 6 Nth Main  St. Butcher  
  Mahony Denis 1878 706 6 Ballinvarrig Evicted Tenant  
  Mahony William 1879 2206 6 Ballinvarrig Evicted Tenant at home
  Mahony James 1881 508 6 Windgap Farmer removed for farm
  Meade James 1882 305 6 Quarry Lane dead most irregular
  Murphy William 1878 601 6 Williamstown Labourer working
  Murphy Thomas 1880 805 6 Cork Lane Fisherman  
  Murray Michael 1881 2306 6 Copper Alley Labourer to work
  O’Brien Patrick 1880 409 6 Chapel Lane Sailor  
  O’Neill Edward 1883 502 6 Market Square Grocer Returned to Kinsale, very good  & intelligent
  Power John 1878 503 6 Newtown, Co. Waterford Farmer Farming
  Spirton? John 1882 1006 6 Windmill Lane Labourer Saddler
  Ahearn John 1878 1408 7 Rhincrew Labourer  
  Buckley Michael 1880   7 Muckridge Labourer date not given
  Dea Patrick 1880 1508 7 Strand  St. Sailor Messenger
  Dennehy John 1880 1502 7 Cork Lane Labourer Working in brickyard
  Donoghue William 1882 1810 7 Grattan St. Policeman  
  Dooley Edward 1881 2611 7 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Flynn Joseph 1881 2008 7 Windmill Lane Shoemaker  
  Foley John 1879 503 7 Hurleys Lane Laundress  
  Gould William 1882 601 7 Springfiield Farmer  
  Grady Edward 1876 806 7 Windmill Lane Labourer to work
  Grifin James 1880 111 7 Browne St. Labourer  
  Guiry Andrew 1879 611 7 Water Lane Dead Baker
  Healy James 1880 207 7 Cork Lane Sailor Working in brickyard
  Hickey Thomas 1878 307 7 Cork Lane Baker  
  Kenneally John 1878 405 7 Main St. Baker Carpenter
  Keogh John 1880 1805 7 Hayman’s Hill Labourer  
  Lavery Edward 1880 2211 7 Cork Lane Soldier Shoemaker
  Long John 1880 2905 7 Windmill Lane Mason Mason
  Loughlin Martin 1883 2307 7 Main St. evicted Tenant  
  Mahony Michael 1879 2710 7 Cork Lane Fisherman Fishing
  McGrath Martin 1881 506 7 Muckridge Bricklayer to brickyard
  McGrath John 1882 807 7 Muckridge Bricklayer To brickyard
  Mooney James 1881 1009 7 The Mall Policeman  
  Murray Thomas 1881 901 7 Catherine St. Carpenter  
  Ormond Gerald 1880 1007 7 Chapel Lane Sailor working  
  Punch Corneilius 1878 706 7 Cross Lane Dead To Industrial School
  Riordan John 1876 305 7 Windmill Lane Labourer to work
  Walsh Peter 1875 1005 7 Cross Lane Labourer to work
  Walsh William 1880 2808 7 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Walsh Maurice 1882 1403 7 Main St. Shoemaker  
  Webster Robert 1878 807 7 Main St. Labourer  
  Ahearn William 1877 111 8 Browne St. Publican Carpenter
  Barry Michael 1882 1606 8 Hayman’s Hill Baker In Union
  Bland Martin 1878 1311 8 Cross Lane Sailor  
  Cashman Michael 1880 1202 8 Green’s Quay Labourer  
  Coakley Morrish 1879 211 8 C ross Lane Chimney Sweep Buther
  Coyne Barthomolew 1878 1512 8 Copper Alley Labourer  
  Cunningham Jeremiah 1882 2106 8 Williamstown Labourer  
  Dooley Michael 1880 2411 8 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Fitzgerald William 1880 307 8 Piltown, Co. Waterford Farmer To Cork college
  Harris  John 1882 2206 8 Summerfield Farmer  
  Hobies Austin 1883 1211 8 Cross Lane Painter Painter
  Hurley Michael 1879 611 8 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Hurley John 1881 1103 8 Kilmagner Farmer To brickyard
  Kidney Ernest 1880 1304 8 Nile St. Carpenter Cardriver
  Kiely Jeremiah 1881 3108 8 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Kirby James 1880 310 8 Church St. **** Messener
  Moloney Michael 1881 2908 8 Green  Quay Fisherman  
  Neville Richard 1880 1508 8 Cork Lane Labourer  
  O’Brien Corneilius 1880   8 Cork Lane Labourer date not given
  O’Brien Michael 1880   8 Windmill Lane Mason date not given
  Pomphrett William 1880   8 Green  Quay Fisherman date not given
  Pruche William 1879 1603 8 Cork Lane Fisherman  
  Quain Maurice 1878 1906 8 Cork Lane Shoemaker Shoemaker
  Quinlan Pierce 1877 1608 8 Cork Lane Labourer  
  Slattery Thomas 1883 2002 8 Williamstown Farmer  
  Sullivan Maurice 1877 1004 8 Mill Road Baker Farming
  Sullivan Thomas 1881 503 8 Copper Alley Labourer  
  Terry William 1882 3006 8 Frogmore Labourer  
  Troy  James 1880 603 8 Cross Lane Sailor  
  Walsh John 1880 912 8 Mill Road    
265 Ahearn John 1879 2511 9 Rhincrew Labourer  
266 Ahearn James 1879 1205 9 Rhincrew Labourer  
248 Brien Barthomolew 1880   9 Windmill Lane Sailor Date not given,  boy in workhouse
  Brooder Daniel 1882 1111 9 New Lane Labourer  
  Buckley Francis 1882 1305 9 Quay Lane Shopkeeper To Cork
267 Coleman Patrick 1879   9 Tallow St. Labourer Check details
  Cotter Laurence 1882 402 9 Mary St. Clerk  most irregular
  Doherty John Francis 1883 2409 9 *** Place Farmer Fermoy College
264 Dowley John 1880 1002 9 Cork Lane Fisherman to brickyard
  Dtimlais William 1882 2407 9 Cork Lane Labourer Check details
274 Ellips Michael 1880   9 Water Lane Labourer Check details
  Fenton Timothy 1882 2011 9 South Abbey Sailor to Greenmount Hospital
  Foley Robert 1882 1204 9 Water Lane Labourer Boat builder
272 Forrest Patrick 1880   9 Main St. Baker incapable of learning
268 Gray Corneilius 1879 2808 9 Chapel Lane Tailor  
  Hartnett Daniel 1881   9 Ballyvergan Most irregular date not given
269 Hayes John 1884 209 9 Green  Quay Dead Sadler
262 Healy John 1882 2307 9 Mill Road Dead  
  Hennessy  John 1883 1405 9 Main St. Shopkeeper  
  Kelly Christopher 1881 2511 9 **** Lane Sailor  
  Linehan David 1882 1004 9 Market Square Butcher  
270 Lynch Michael 1881   9 Cork Lane Labourer  
277 Mahony James 1881   9 Windgap Farmer Check details
271 Mangan Patrick 1878 1703 9 Cross Lane Fisherman  
  McCarthy James 1884 1402 9 Seafield Farmer Moved to Baldoyle
  Millerick Patrick 1880 1202 9 Main St. Blacksmith Smith
278 Moloney Christopher 1881   9 Raheen Lane Baker  
276 Moniel John 1881 2303 9 The Mall Sailor Coachbuilder
263 Mulcahy Thoms 1881   9 Cross Lane Sailor Check details
275 Power Maurice 1880   9 Newbarn Farmer Check details
273 Smiddy Timothy 1880   9 Frogmore Labourer Check details
                 

 

 

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This is from Phil Irwin and concerns an episode during the Famine :

INQUESTS—DEATHS FROM STARVATION—
A CORPSE FOR SALE.
——————
On Friday last, D. Geran, Esq., Coroner, held an Inquest at Youghal, on the body of a boy seven years old named Wm. Miller. The corpse was taken by the Police while exposed for sale. The following jury were summoned upon the occasion. William Walsh, Thomas Dee, John Forde, John Annour, Leonard Parker, Thomas Treacy, Patrick Brien, Edward Kelly, William Cunningham, Thomas O’Neill, Edward Condon, and Thomas Garivan.
Mr. John D. Ronayne being sworn, deposed as follows. I am an Apothecary in the town of Youghal ; was in my own shop about one o’clock in the afternoon of Wednesday, the 27th inst., a man, now in Court, whose name I don’t know, came into my shop, and asked me did I want to buy a corpse ? I asked was it a man or a woman ? He first said it was a man, and then that it was a boy. I asked the age, and he said seven or eight years old ; asked was the boy coffined and buried ? and he said he was ; asked where the boy was from ? he said from the West, asked was he his own child ? he replied not ; at this moment I was called into my house, and on my return back to the shop the man was gone. In the interim, I saw a Policeman passing bye ; I called him, mentioned the circumstance, and desrcibed the man who was in my shop. In about ten minutes after the Policeman returned with the prisoner, and asked me was that the man that offered to sell the body ? and I said it was. In about three hours afterwards, on the same day, I saw the body of a boy about seven years old in the Police Barracks, Youghal. I never knew anything of the kind to have occurred in Youghal before, nor even knew of the sale of bodies there.
Mochael Mangan, Sub-Constable, sworn.—I was passing the town of Youghal at midday on the 27th inst., another Sub-Constable gave prisoner in charge to me ; observed a woman, now in Court, standing close by—she had on her back a basket and her cloak over it ; asked what was in the basket ; she said “nothing ;” removed the cloak, and took a little straw out of the mouth of the basket ; and there found, doubled together, the dead body of a boy, about seven years old ; the man and woman were arrested, and brought back to the Barrack ; did not know them ; while under way to the Barrack the male prisoner wanted to state something to me ; cautioned him not to do so, as I would bring it in evidence against him ; on coming into the barracks ; took the basket, with the corpse in it, off the woman’s back ; the male prisoner began to state a second time why he brought the child for sale ; was cautioned against doing so, but perservered. He stated that the child was sickly some time before he died ; that it was want that compelled him (prisoner) and his wife to offer for sale the dead body ; admitted the child did not belong to himself ; that he was an illegitimate child, belonging to a sister-in-law of his ; and he reared the child for the last six years, and that his mother went to England.
Richard Ronanyne, Esq., M.D., sworn—On Monday last was called on to make an examination on the body of a male child, apparently between 7 and 8 years of age—went to the Police Barrack at Youghal, was pointed out the body, doubled up in a basket, and covered with straw ; there were no marks of violence on the body ; on opening it I found the contents of the chest and abdomen perfectly healthy, but there was not a particle of food in the stomach or intestines, nor a particle of adipose or fatty matter ; from all these circumstances, together with the extremely emaciated appearance of the child, is of the opinion he died from hunger.
The Coroner asked was there any more witnesses, and none appearing, Thomas Miller, the person charged, asked permission to say a few words. The Coroner cautioned him against saying anything that would criminate himself.
Miller, a poor emaciated looking-man, who was in custody of the police, then came forward and stated —I lived with Mr. Gaggan, of Greenland for the last ten years ; and since the potatoes failed I got 8d. per day, and that was not able to support my family, being six in number. When the public works commenced Mr. Gaggin [sic] knocked off all his men but two. I went then to the public works, earned about five shillings a week, and that would not give my family a meal a day when things got dear. I had to break off from work from want of food ; I went to beg for food among the neighbours, and sent my wife to be taken, in my place for a couple of days at the works —she was refused. I went back to the works again on the following Monday, and was without food from Monday morning till the following Thursday on the works ; I used to take a drink of spring water sometimes and faint every night with weakness, and then turn into bed, not having light or fire, and I left the work on Friday to go a second time a begging. I went to Ballymacoda, to the relief committee, the gentlemen were coming out, I saw there Mr. Fitzgerald and Mr. Egar, the rector of the parish. Mr. Fitzgerald asked me why I was not at work ? I said I was not able, Mr. Egar looked at me, and said “I was not able to work from starvation.” Mr. Egar rode on, and told me to follow after ; I followed, till he came to a house where he sold bread at half price, at Ballymacoda ; he told me to rap at the door ; the woman came out, and Mr. Egar ordered me 2s. worth of bread ; I got it and went home. Having so much bread to share among my children on Friday, I went to the works on Saturday. I was paid my wages on the following Wednesday, 4s., and of this I had to pay 3s. 6d. to Pat Griffin, of Ring, who passed his word for meal for me the week before. I had only 6d. left going home, and took with me the worth of it in bread. I shared the bread among my children, and God knows how little of it I left myself ; the day following I saw the children had nothing, till my wife went when the tide was out to cut Doolamaun (sea weed) off the rocks ; she brought it home, boiled it, put a little salt on it, and on this we were living for days before the child, William Miller, died. I went to work again, on last Tuesday morning and on returning in the evening the child was dead. This statement I am ready to make on oath ; and if you doubt me, ask the Rev. Mr. Egar of Lisquinlan, or Mr. Fitzgerald of Ballykennely, and with the exception of the charge now against me, nothing was ever laid before to my charge.
The prisoner’s wife, a wretched care worn looking woman, with an infant at her breast—said—The reason I was selling the child was from want, and I would do anything to keep the life in my children and in myself ; and this I shall publicly say, however I may be punished by law. A couple of days before the child died, I went to my master’s son, John Gaggin of Greenland, for a few turnips to eat ; he said the last of them were in the [illegible] for the horses ; I went then and stole a few [illegible] of boiled turnips for the children ; Mr. Gaggin saw me, and told me never to do it again. I was not able to sweep the house from weakness, and would eat the cat through hunger.
The Coroner addressed the jury, and told them that exposing for sale a dead body was an indictable offence that would come before another tribunal. It was for the jury to enquire how, and in what manner, the boy Wm. Miller, came by his death. The principle evidence was that of the Doctor, and upon his testimony the jury should return their verdict.
The jury, after a short consultation, returned a verdict—Death by starvation.
Same day, inquests were held on the bodies of Margaret and Patrick Croneen, mother and son, who died at the Windmill, near Youghal. It appeared on evidence that the parties lived for days upon turnips, and latterly on the putrid remains of a pig, that died on the premises of a neighbouring farmer, and for days before death they had nothing to eat.
The Jury at once returned their verdict, finding that Margaret and Patrick Croneen died from starvation.

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Youghal Quakers

Michael Ahern , writing in the Cork Historical and Archaeological Journal has an article called “The Quakers of Youghal”  which details the various families from the outset to the 20th century. Initially two English women preached at the Market Square in Youghal (  today near the Post Office there would have been a Cross and north of it was North Cross Lane which still exists). The two brave ladies were Elizabeth Fletcher and Elizabeth Smith. Some of the soldiers who hear them became interested – in particular Captain James Sicklemore and Lieutenant Robert Sandham.

Sandham married a local girl, Deborah Baker. both officers got land at Fermoy but Sandham sold his and returned to Youghal where he lived on the Main Street and his house was used as the first Meeting House.

IMG_2787The authorities were not happy and posted sentries on the door to prevent men entering the premises for a “meeting”.  At that stage some Quakers left the town –  six men and women and nine children were given money to help them leave.

One of the others convinced was Edward Laundy. We hear of him in a few places – Dinely view of ExThomas Dinely mentions that he erected an additional wharf etc.

William Penn mentions concern about him and tries to meet with him.

We also hear of him going into St. Mary’s Collegiate Church to harangue the congregation. They clearly did not appreciate his intervention, he was manhandled out of the church and physically abused by the congregation with both sticks and stones. Deborah Sandham was equally unwelcome when she went into St. Mary ‘s and also the church of the Independents ( Chapel Lane) and Robert Sandham was jailed in 1661 for refusing to serve on a jury, and his horse taken from him.

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Quaker Records

The Quakers kept reasonably detailed records of births, marriages and deaths. For those who are interested there are microfilm copies of the registers available. Nearest to Youghal is the Cork County Archive Centre in Blackpool, Cork. There is a good, easy to navigate website which details what is available – Minute books, Registers etc.

The records go back to 1671 for births, marriages and deaths. There are occasional comments about people being disunited or disowned.

Francis Malone, of Youghal, “took to wife” Ann Hillary of Waterford in 1756. For some reason he was “disowned” and disappears from the records.  Ann however “remained” in the system and later died in Waterford.

Looking through the records you see many, very short lives as infant mortality was a significant feature of life then – even for wealthy families like the Harveys.

The Quaker method of writing dates is different to what is normally used elsewhere in Ireland – it is in the format Month – Day – Year ( just as was accepted in the United States).

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